SMAD family member 2


SMAD2 (may also be known as: None)




The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signal of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulates multiple cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. This protein is recruited to the TGF-beta receptors through its interaction with the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. In response to TGF-beta signal, this protein is phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptors. The phosphorylation induces the dissociation of this protein with SARA and the association with the family member SMAD4. The association with SMAD4 is important for the translocation of this protein into the nucleus, where it binds to target promoters and forms a transcription repressor complex with other cofactors. This protein can also be phosphorylated by activin type 1 receptor kinase, and mediates the signal from the activin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]


sma-2 Caenorhabditis elegans
Smox Drosophila melanogaster
smad2 Danio rerio
Smad2 Mus musculus
Smad2 Rattus norvegicus

Links to external resources

Changes associated with this gene

Identifier Name Type Tissues Organism Gene Data Actions
DAA2071 SMAD family member 2 decreases with age Molecular ovary Human SMAD2 58.0% Decrease Gene Expression Level
DAA2418 Sma- and Mad-related protein 2 increases with age Molecular dermis Human SMAD2 16.5% Increase DNA Methylation

GO Terms

GO IDGO TermGO Category
GO:0001657 ureteric bud development biological_process
GO:0001701 in utero embryonic development biological_process
GO:0001707 mesoderm formation biological_process
GO:0007179 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway biological_process
GO:0007182 common-partner SMAD protein phosphorylation biological_process
GO:0007183 SMAD protein complex assembly biological_process
GO:0007352 zygotic specification of dorsal/ventral axis biological_process
GO:0007369 gastrulation biological_process
GO:0007492 endoderm development biological_process
GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation biological_process
GO:0009749 response to glucose stimulus biological_process
GO:0009791 post-embryonic development biological_process
GO:0009880 embryonic pattern specification biological_process
GO:0009952 anterior/posterior pattern specification biological_process
GO:0010718 positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition biological_process
GO:0017015 regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway biological_process
GO:0030073 insulin secretion biological_process
GO:0030324 lung development biological_process
GO:0031016 pancreas development biological_process
GO:0031053 primary miRNA processing biological_process
GO:0035265 organ growth biological_process
GO:0035556 intracellular signal transduction biological_process
GO:0045165 cell fate commitment biological_process
GO:0045892 negative regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent biological_process
GO:0045893 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent biological_process
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter biological_process
GO:0048340 paraxial mesoderm morphogenesis biological_process
GO:0048589 developmental growth biological_process
GO:0048617 embryonic foregut morphogenesis biological_process
GO:0048701 embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis biological_process
GO:0051098 regulation of binding biological_process
GO:0060021 palate development biological_process
GO:0060039 pericardium development biological_process
GO:0070723 response to cholesterol biological_process
GO:0005622 intracellular cellular_component
GO:0005634 nucleus cellular_component
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm cellular_component
GO:0005667 transcription factor complex cellular_component
GO:0005737 cytoplasm cellular_component
GO:0005829 cytosol cellular_component
GO:0032444 activin responsive factor complex cellular_component
GO:0071141 SMAD protein complex cellular_component
GO:0003677 DNA binding molecular_function
GO:0003682 chromatin binding molecular_function
GO:0003690 double-stranded DNA binding molecular_function
GO:0003700 sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity molecular_function
GO:0005160 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding molecular_function
GO:0005515 protein binding molecular_function
GO:0008134 transcription factor binding molecular_function
GO:0019902 phosphatase binding molecular_function
GO:0030618 transforming growth factor beta receptor, pathway-specific cytoplasmic mediator activity molecular_function
GO:0031625 ubiquitin protein ligase binding molecular_function
GO:0033613 activating transcription factor binding molecular_function
GO:0034713 type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding molecular_function
GO:0046332 SMAD binding molecular_function
GO:0070410 co-SMAD binding molecular_function
GO:0070411 I-SMAD binding molecular_function
GO:0070412 R-SMAD binding molecular_function